Blog Tag: Regulatory
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently updated its software Precertification Program. A working program was originally rolled out in April 2018, but the program was updated in response to requested public input. The FDA expects to roll out a finalized version of the program by December 2018 and to have a pilot test available in 2019.
With the precertification program, the FDA hopes to streamline the certification of “mobile apps” and other software that is used to “treat, diagnose, cure, mitigate, or prevent disease or other conditions,” or so-called software as a medical device (SaMD), according to the updated program description. While software in a medical device (SiMD) is not currently part of the program, the FDA hopes to include SiMD and software that is an accessory to hardware in the future. The program will allow certain organizations that can demonstrate a “culture of quality and organizational excellence” to streamline their oversight of SaMD.
The update clarifies that not all software is subject to regulatory review even if it has some connection to the medical industry. In particular, the update notes that non-device software is exempt, such as software that is intended for (1) for administrative support, (2) for maintaining or encouraging a healthy lifestyle, (3) to serve as electronic patient records, (4) for transferring, storing, converting formats, or for displaying data, or (5) to provide certain limited clinical decision support.
According to the update, organizations “of all sizes” can qualify. The FDA makes clear that startups and smaller companies can apply and receive precertification. Two levels of precertification exist. Level 1 precertification allows an organization to develop and market “lower risk” software without review while also streamlining review of higher risk software. This level would be awarded to an organization that demonstrates excellence in product development but may have a “limited track record” in “developing, delivering, and maintaining” products in the healthcare market. Level 2 precertification allows “lower and moderate risk” software to be developed and marketed without review and allowing streamlined review of other software. This level is awarded to those organizations with a track record in demonstrating high quality software products.
In determining what amount of review is required for “lower risk” and “moderate risk” SaMD, the FDA looks at (1) the risk category of the product, (2) the level of precertification of the organization, and (3) the extent of the changes the software relative to an existing device. Under either level of precertification, “minor changes” require no review by the FDA.
The FDA is looking to update additional aspects of the precertification program, including how it relates to substantially equivalent device review. The FDA is currently requesting comments on the program.
The U.S. House of Representatives recently passed the FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017. This bill seeks to change the requirement for companies to report medical device malfunctions to the FDA. Previously, companies had to submit a report within 30 days of a problem. Under the current version of the Reauthorization Act, companies will be able to submit reports once every three months instead. Additionally, these reports will be able to “summarize previously reported product malfunctions, rather than filing detailed reports on each case” as reported by the StarTribune. However, this does not affect the 30-day reporting requirement for medical device companies to report “adverse events” or anything that result in actual injury to consumers.
This measure is part of a piece of legislation that must be renewed every five years and which sets the fees that device makers pay the FDA to review their products. The goal of the agreement from the device maker’s perspective is to reduce the time it takes for the FDA to review products and get them to market. According to the New York Times, this bill “compels the F.D.A. to speed medical devices onto the market — and into patients — faster than ever.” But this may not be in patients’ best interest, because medical device malfunctions are already “vastly underreported” as acknowledged by the FDA.
StarTribune reports that proponents of the change say that it would “simplify the needlessly repetitive process of reporting known product problems.” Minneapolis-based med-tech regulatory attorney Mark DuVal said that “A lot of MDRs (Medical Device Reports) are really boilerplate and repetitive,” and that “[i]t would be nice to be able bundle them.” According to the StarTribune, DuVal thinks that the current system of reporting MDR’s creates a lot of work for companies while doing little to inform doctors about issues that are known. Janet Trunzo, a senior executive vice president with the lobbying group AdvaMed, said in a statement that the reporting provision “will allow the agency to better focus its resources on more serious reportable events.” According to Trunzo, the quarterly summary reporting only applies to well-understood and familiar malfunction incidents. Medical device companies would still be required to file an individual report on any malfunction incident that had not been previously reported.
According to the New York Times, critics of the change do not think relaxing the rules is proper when so much already goes unreported. Jack Mitchell, director of health policy for the National Center for Health Research, said that “[p]ost-market surveillance of medical devices continues to be dangerously slow and clearly inadequate to protect patients from risky devices.” Mitchell thinks that loosening up the reporting rules will “exacerbate the tendency to underreport.” Ms. Tomes, who is now the chief executive of Device Events, which mines FDA’s device data to find signals of problems, also does not think this loosening of the reporting rules is in the public’s best interest. Ms. Tomes pointed out that last year, many reports about battery depletion of cardiac defibrillators were reported as “malfunctions.”
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Notice on July 11, 2017, exempting 1,003 Class II medical devices from premarket notification requirements under Section 510(k). The Notice indicates that anyone with pending 510(k) submissions for devices that are now exempt “should withdraw their submissions.”
According to the Notice, the exemptions from the 510(k) requirements do not apply to other statutory or regulatory requirements. Further, the Notice indicates there are limitations on some of the exemptions. Table 1 in the Notice lists exempt devices that are subject to general limitations of certain sections of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Table 2 lists exempt devices subject to those general limitations and that must comply with partial exemption limitations as indicated in the table. Table 3 lists exempt devices classified as “radioallergosorbent (RAST) immunological test systems” but which are only a subset of all devices in that classification.
The FDA claims the exemptions “will decrease regulatory burdens on the medical device industry and will eliminate private costs and expenditures required to comply with certain Federal regulations.” Further, the Notice states, “regulated industry will no longer have to invest time and resources in premarket notifications, including preparation of documents and data for submission to FDA, payment of user fees associated with 510(k) submissions, and responding to questions and requests for additional information from FDA during 510(k) review.”
The Notice was published in accordance with procedures established by the 21st Century Cures Act, which was signed into law December 13, 2016. According to the Notice, the 21st Century Cures Act requires the FDA to publish a list of each type of exempt class II device within 90 days after enactment of the Act and at least once every 5 years thereafter. The Notice reflects the FDA’s final determination regarding a proposed list of devices for exemption issued earlier this year. The relevant codified language for each listed device will be amended by the FDA in a “future action.”