Blog Article Tag: FDA
FDA Publishes Draft Ethical Consideration Guidance to Protect Children Participants in Clinical Trials of Medical Products
On September 23, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a draft guidance aimed to protect children who participate in clinical trials, titled Ethical Considerations for Clinical Investigations of Medical Products Involving Children. The draft guidance describes the FDA’s current position regarding ethical considerations for clinical investigations of drugs, biological products, and medical devices involving children. The guidance explains the fundamental concepts for the ethical framework that institutional review boards (IRBs), sponsors, and the industry should consider when reviewing or conducting clinical trials involving children.
Of note, the guidance outlines additional considerations and recommendations IRBs should assess when enrolling children in clinical investigations of medical products. The guidance explains that, in principal, the risk of the clinical investigations must be balanced by the prospect of direct and potential benefits and must at least be as favorable as any available accepted alternative treatment. Accordingly, the guidance suggests medical product developers need to use a dose or treatment level expected to be effective for the child which should also have a positive impact on the child’s life.
The FDA’s Office of Pediatric Therapeutics noted that “the best way to provide children with safe and effective treatment options is by including them in clinical research.” The Office of Pediatric Therapeutics further noted that children are afforded additional safeguards when participating in a clinical investigation since they are a vulnerable class who cannot provide informed consent for themselves. The FDA’s guideline comes at an important time. By way of example, although 48.2% to 72.6% of parents are willing to vaccinate their children against the COVID-19 virus, a lower rate of parents allow their children to participate in clinical trials.
The FDA’s draft guidance is available here, and is available for comments until December 27, 2022.
The FDA has published new web pages about Monkeypox and medical devices. The new web page, titled Monkeypox and Medical Devices, includes information on diagnostic testing, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and information for test developers. With more than 22,000 confirmed Monkeypox cases in the U.S., the new Monkeypox Medical Devices web comes as FDA takes significant actions to increase Monkeypox testing capacity nationwide following the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ August 9th announcement of public health emergency.
The FDA’s guidance issued for test developers under Policy for Monkeypox Tests to Address the Public Health Emergency describes, among other things, review priorities of Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) requests for monkeypox diagnostic tests. And, on the same day as the FDA guidance was issued, the FDA also issued the first EUA to a commercially available monkeypox test in the United States to Quest Diagnostics for its Quest Diagnostics Monkeypox Virus Qualitative Real-Time PCR device. “With this FDA emergency authorization, Quest is positioned to complement the response of public health laboratories and help fight the spread of the virus,” said Jay G. Wohlgemuth, M.D., Senior Vice President, R&D, Medical and Chief Medical Officer, Quest Diagnostic.
Quest Diagnostics is not the only company that has been working on monkeypox diagnostic test kits. Earlier in June, Becton Dickinson announced partnership with CerTest Biotec to collaborate on molecular diagnostic test for monkeypox. Several other healthcare and pharmaceuticals companies have also been linked with this effort. This comes at a time when many of these companies are preparing for a drop in revenue from COVID-19 testing as the threat of COVID-19 reduces.
On July 29, 2022, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) issued a Notice by Director Kathy Vidal that may be relevant to those seeking or holding patents on medical devices that require Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The Notice relates to certain duties owed to the USPTO with regard to statements and documents submitted to the FDA and other government agencies. The duties include a duty to disclose certain information and a duty of reasonable inquiry.
The Notice states “[t]he duty of candor and good faith in dealing with the USPTO includes the duty to disclose to the USPTO information material to the patentability of a claimed invention.” Further, “[e]ach party submitting a paper to the USPTO has an additional duty to perform an inquiry that is reasonable under the circumstances, including reviewing documents to identify information that is material to the patentability of a claimed invention.” The Notice states it “is intended to clarify the duties, including as to materials or statements material to patentability or statements made to the USPTO that are inconsistent with statements submitted to the FDA and other governmental agencies.”
The Notice was issued against the backdrop of an Executive Order by President Biden regarding competition in the economy, specifically in the pharmaceutical industry. Additionally, U.S. Senators sent a letter to the USPTO requesting “that the Office ‘take steps to reduce patent applicants’ making inappropriate conflicting statements in submissions to the [USPTO] and other federal agencies.'” Regarding the letter, the Notice further states:
The letter provided a specific example in which “inconsistent statements submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to secure approval of a product—asserting that the product is the same as a prior product that is already on the market— can then be directly contradicted by statements made to the [USPTO] to secure a patent on the product.” The Letter noted that such inconsistent statements “should be cause for rejecting the application and, when made knowingly and with bad intent, potentially other sanctions.”
Against this background, the Notice states it “is part of the USPTO’s efforts to put into effect the Administration’s goals and address the Senators’ concerns.”
The Notice thus discusses which parties have a duty to disclose information to the USPTO in various patent examinations and proceedings, and what material information must be disclosed. For example, the duty to disclose “applies to positions taken by applicants or parties involving the claimed subject matter. For instance, in PTAB proceedings, parties should not take a position about the patentability of challenged claims that is inconsistent with positions taken in submissions to other Government agencies regarding the same subject matter.” An example PTAB proceeding is cited which resulted in “suspending a practitioner for four years for failure to correct the written record after learning of inaccuracies in a declaration the practitioner had filed.” The Notice discusses similar duties in the context of patent examination and prosecution.
In addition to the duty to disclose, the Notice discusses the duty of reasonable inquiry and when these two duties arise in dealings with other government agencies besides the USPTO.
The FDA continues to address items on its Digital Health Innovation Action Plan. After recently issuing proposed guidance and a pilot program relevant to Software as a Medical Device (“SaMD”), the FDA issued a final guidance regarding SaMD on December 8, 2017. The guidance adopts a set of quality management principles relevant to “software that utilizes an algorithm (logic, set of rules, or model) that operates on data input (digitized content) to produce an output” such as informing, diagnosing, or treating a patient.
In a press release announcing the final guidance, FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb stated:
This final guidance provides globally recognized principles for analyzing and assessing SaMD, based on the overall risk of the product. . . . [W]e’re issuing new details on the common principles we and our international partners will use for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of SaMD.
The principles referred to by Commissioner Gottlieb include the following SaMD Quality Management Principles:
- An organizational structure that provides leadership, accountability, and governance with adequate resources to assure the safety, effectiveness, and performance of SaMD;
- A set of SaMD lifecycle support processes that are scalable for the size of the organization and are applied consistently across all realization and use processes; and
- A set of realization and use processes that are scalable for the type of SaMD and the size of the organization; and that takes into account important elements required for assuring the safety, effectiveness, and performance of SaMD.
Commissioner Gottlieb further opined that this guidance and the IMDRF principles within it “provide [the FDA] with an initial framework when further developing [the FDA’s] own specific regulatory approaches and expectations for regulatory oversight.”
This article states that “Biolase, a medical device manufacturer based in Irvine, California, announced that it had received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its 940 nm Diolase 10 laser. In addition, the company announced that the FDA had granted approval for use of the device in additional 80 procedures.”
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cleared Fenwal to market a therapeutic plasma exchange protocol for the company’s Amicus® separator, Fenwal announced today. The Amicus separator from Fenwal is now one of the most advanced cell separation systems available for therapeutic plasma exchange and mononuclear cell collection, which are used to treat a wide variety of diseases and for clinical research.